How to Appropriately Socialize a Puppy: A Guide for Dog Owners


Bringing a puppy into your home is an exciting time, filled with adorable moments and new experiences. One of the most crucial aspects of raising a well-adjusted dog is proper socialization. When done correctly, socialization can help your puppy grow into a confident, friendly, and well-mannered dog. In this guide, we’ll explore what socialization means, why it’s important, and how to effectively socialize your puppy.



puppy socialization

What is Socialization?

Socialization is the process of exposing your puppy to a wide range of experiences, environments, people, and other animals in a controlled and positive way. The goal is to help your puppy develop a sense of comfort and adaptability, reducing the risk of fear-based behaviors and aggression later in life.

two puppies looking for answers on puppy socialization.

Why is Socialization Important?

Puppies go through a critical socialization period, typically between 3 and 14 weeks of age, during which their experiences can have a significant impact on their future behavior. Proper socialization can lead to a more confident and sociable dog, while a lack of socialization can result in fear, anxiety, and aggression toward unfamiliar people, animals, or environments.

Kissing social dogs

When do I start?

Breeders should start socializing puppies before they go to their permanent homes. As early as 3 weeks breeders can start exposing the puppies to a variety of people, kids, sights, floor textures, and sounds. You should also start socialization with your puppy as soon as you bring them home. You can take your puppy for car rides, introduce them to vaccinated dogs that you know, and bring them to pet-friendly stores with you (hold them in a blanket and avoid putting them on the floor).  Avoid areas in public where there might be high traffic of dogs, and dog poop left behind.

fear imprint stage starts at an early age with puppies

First Fear and Imprint Stage

From 8-12 weeks is the first fear and imprint stage. This is a crucial stage in your puppy’s life that can affect your dog’s behavior in the future. Owners must expect this fear period and avoid any negative experiences or events. During this time in your puppy’s life, they are developing their response to stressful situations. If they have a negative experience during this time they will likely struggle in these situations in the future. You must respond appropriately. 

Fear and imprint stage 3-14 weeks

Use these tips to help you

  1. Don’t panic, and stay calm. Do not react dramatically in a situation where your puppy shows fear. Talk to them with a normal or calm tone, and show them that you are not concerned or afraid for them. Avoid coddling and petting your puppy in these situations as this can miscommunicate and reinforce their fear. Instead, inspect the scary item or person yourself so they can read your confidence in the situation. This will help them overcome their fears as they are making observations of you in this stage. 
  2. Don’t force them to interact. If you force your puppy to interact with something that is making them fearful, it will likely make them more uncomfortable, and feel more afraid. Give them space, advocate for them, and clear their space. Do not coddle or try to comfort your puppy. Step in and tell the person, or the dog’s owner that your puppy is in training and can’t say hi. 
  3. Bring treats with you. Make sure your dog is hungry for treats when taking them to new environments to meet new people and new dogs. If they can take treats it can help make positive associations in these new situations. 
  4. Supervised Socialization. Supervise your puppy while interacting with new dogs. Avoid too much play, or play with an unfamiliar dog with body language that is hard to read.  

Second Fear and Imprint Stage

There is a second fear period that is less predictable and depending on the dog can happen between 6-14 months of age and last for a few weeks. Check out Navigating the Teenage Phase With Your Dog: A Guide for Pet Parents. 


Teenage phase in dog developement

Positive Ways to Socialize Your Puppy

  1.  Introduce them to dogs you know. If you have friends or family members with dogs that you know and trust, it is a good idea to start socializing them with these dogs first. Avoid unfamiliar dogs or letting your puppy pull you over to see other dogs on leash. 
  2. Stop at the vet’s office. Most vets are happy to let you stop by with your puppy to get a weight, say hi to the staff, and get treats. This helps make a positive association with going to the vet office. 
  3. Bring them with you for car rides. Bring your puppy with you. Car rides are a great way to socialize your puppy and teach them how to behave calmly in the car. Drive-thrus that give out treats are also a good way for your dog to make a positive association to the car. It also gives your dog enrichment, there are so many smells! 
  4. Friends and family. Have your friends and family over to meet your puppy! 
  5. Bring them into pet-friendly stores. Even before your puppy has all their shots you can carry them into stores. This can help desensitize your puppy to different sights and sounds. Bring treats with you as people will probably stop you and want to say hi. 
  6. Puppy classes. Finding the right puppy class can be a great way to socialize them. It will give you great tips on showing your dog new behaviors and working with them around other dogs and distractions. Most puppy classes will have free time to let the puppies play as well. Having them around other dogs close to their age can be a really fun way to teach them how to play appropriately 
  7. Practice engagement. More important then socializing with other dogs and people is showing your dog that you are the most important thing to focus on in a distracting environment, or when they feel uncertain. Spend time playing with your dog around distractions. Spend time silently sitting on a park bench observing the environment without interacting with it. Reward with treats and affection when they look at you. This will give them a chance to get used to different sights, sounds, and smells, and will create a safe space with you in any environment.


group dog training classes

Avoid Dog Parks and Unstructured Doggie Daycare

Dog parks and unstructured Doggie Daycare may seem like good options to socialize your puppy and get some of their energy out. But in reality, there are a lot of things that can go wrong in these situations. 


  1. There is not enough structure. Often times owners have little to no control over their dogs at dog parks. They let their dogs run around crazy with no verbal control to call them away from other dogs when they start to play too rough. 
  2. Learned disobedience. When you take your dog to the dog park or doggie daycare you are teaching them to disengage from you. The point of training your dog is teaching them to pay attention to you above all other things, including other dogs. 
  3. Oversocialization. Your dog could become reactive on the leash out of frustration of not being able to play with every dog that they see. When you take your dog to the dog park or to doggie daycare they learn that other dogs are a signal for play. If they are on a leash and see another dog they could get frustrated and develop behaviors like lunging, barking, and overexcitement from seeing other dogs on the walk. 
  4. Trauma. If your dog is in a fear imprint stage of their development, and something traumatic happens it can impact the rest of their lives. Even if it only happens once, if the event is traumatic enough it will stick with your dog. 
boise dog daycare


Proper socialization is key to raising a well-rounded and confident dog. By exposing your puppy to a variety of people, places, and experiences, you’ll help them navigate the world with ease and joy. Remember to be patient and consistent, and seek guidance from professionals when needed. With the right approach, your puppy will grow into a happy and well-socialized dog, ready to take on the world.

For more information or help in the Boise or Meridian area, sign up for a free consultation with one of our local dog trainers.


puppy with new owner